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Shotcrete is mortar or concrete that is applied as a spray, through a high-pressure hose and application nozzle. In the hands of a skilled operator, shotcrete offers the versatility to construct, repair and reinforce walls, bridges, tunnels, channels and other structural elements.
The history of concrete is punctuated with innovations that have expanded the usefulness of this basic material. Post-tensioning technology creates concrete planks with incredible strength and spanning capabilities. Admixtures allow builders to pour concrete in freezing weather, reduce water content for greater strength, and produce lightweight insulated concrete full of tiny bubbles. Advanced pumping equipment makes it possible to move and place just-mixed "mud" into places where most folks wouldn't believe it could go.
Shotcrete is an especially noteworthy innovation in concrete technology. Sometimes referred to as "wet gunning," shotcreting involves spraying concrete or mortar through a high-pressure hose to fill a form, repair a damaged surface or cover an armature or other substrate.
Rock-solid results from a high-pressure hose. Shotcrete's ability to stick to a surface or form after spray application.
A shotcrete application can be done using concrete (sand, aggregate, Portland cement and water) or mortar (sand, Portland cement and water). In either case, the ingredients are thoroughly mixed before being fed into a concrete pump that forces the liquid through a high-pressure hose. Air from a powerful air compressor is added to liquid at the application nozzle, enabling the operator to apply thin layers of concrete (or mortar) to a target surface. Because the air propels and lightens the mixture, shotcrete can be applied against vertical and sloping surfaces.
Before delving into the different uses of shotcrete, it's important to clear up some terminology. Shotcrete is often confused with "Gunite," which is a trade name for another type of spray application.
A Gunite application involves spraying a dry mortar mix through a hose, with water rather than air being added at the application nozzle. To avoid confusion, some people refer to a Gunite application as "dry-gunning." Choosing between dry-gunning and wet-gunning is best left to the contractor, since there are advantages and limitations with both application techniques.
Shotcrete's spray-on application makes this technique popular for building swimming pools, as shown in the photo. However, foundation repair contractors exploit the versatility of shotcrete by using this technique to construct and repair retaining walls, foundation walls, tunnels, dams, bridges and shear walls. Shotcrete is also useful for lining drainage channels and for reinforcing walls as part of a seismic or shear wall retrofit.
The success of a shotcrete or Gunite application depends largely on the skill and experience of the application crew. For any high-pressure spray-on concrete project, it's important to have a contractor who is familiar with the tools and techniques.